Importance given to Nature and Technology should be somewhat equal.

Importance given to Nature and Technology should be somewhat equal.
Save nature

Don't make lockdown, ruin your growth, continuous hard work always pays off

Don't make lockdown, ruin your growth, continuous hard work always pays off
Hard work in lockdown

Data is power and AI is the future.

Data is power and AI is the future.

The field of Computer Science is very interesting you just need to give it the time it deserves.

The field of Computer Science is very interesting you just need to give it the time it deserves.
Computer Science

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Tuesday, May 25, 2021

Big Data an Essay

Ankush Pandey


Technology has been there among us for a very long time now, from the date of invention of computers we have been using technology in almost every field. It started with simple tasks like performing mathematical calculations, documenting stuff easily and as a means of communication. For a very long time now we have been dependent on deterministic approaches to fulfill our requirements which involves the programming of the hardware either by hardware or by software programs. Somewhere along this journey we came across the problems which were practically impossible to implement using a deterministic approach either because the solution did not exist or we did not understand the steps involved in the solution for such problems. It has been a challenge for the computer scientists and the developers to come with a proper algorithm. Because of all these issues we came across the idea of mapping the data to the solution in this technique v tried to develop algorithms which can look at the data and produce the the output by simply figuring out the logic between the relationship of the input which is the data and the output this approach was very very different from the previous methods where humans used to understand the data and then tried to formulate an algorithm which can take the input from the data and produce an output. This new technology e worked as a revolution in the field of computer science since it was the solution for almost every non deterministic problem we have come across for centuries. As a result nowadays we can see that we have assistants like Alexa Google Cortana etcetera. Apart from these assistance we also have means to cluster the customers, to recommend some specific product to the customers, to do very complex classification and so on. Now because of this revolution in this new technology we felt the importance of the data and this was the point where we started gathering or you can say acquisition of the data from every field from medical, agricultural, engineering, daily life etcetera. According to 2020 the size of the data acquisition system market was about 1.8 billion US dollars and it is expected to increase up to 2.4 billion US dollars by 2025. The demand and supply of such a large size of data requires different efficient and fast data storage techniques as well[6]. The most important part of data acquisition system is the type of data and its storage, very basic requirement for today's computers is being fast and to make any computer system fast one of the major component is to make the data retrieval for the computer fast so as the amount of data we are gathering day by day is increasing, we are realising that the existence of a data storage system which is very efficient and very fast is necessary. Definition of storage suggests that data storage is a collective approach which is used to capture and hold the information using either optical or electromagnetic or silicon based storage devices and the storage of large amounts of data is not the issue, the issue is to make 1 date stored data access very fast. Various options which are considered for data storage nowadays are magnetic tape, magnetic disk, optical disc, flash memory etc. The two most famous means of storage devices are hard disk drive referred to as HDD, solid state drive referred to as SSD and optical storage. The next important step for any application including data is the retrieval and usage of data which involves data extraction, data preprocessing, data analysis and the application. Most of the times the data stored inside storage devices is in the form of raw data which is not processed and contains a lot of noise in some cases the next most important steps involved in the extraction of information from data is noise removal because a data which contains a lot of noise may lead to a false solution or solution which is not of a lot of use, this is a challenge for us today, because removal of noise is quite hard in some cases. Once the data is processed, it is analysed to find the patterns and important information present in it. There are multiple ways to analyse the data. If the data analysis is done solely by computers then and that analysis steps involved are based on statistical values like variance standard deviation and many more but if the analysis is performed by human beings in that case the major part of the analysis consists of data visualisation. so the two major ways to analyse any type of data either by mathematical approach or bi visualisation. Data analysis as it sounds is not very simple because that approach used for different data sets can vary e extensively because not every data is a so the hardest part In data analysis is to decide the techniques which are going to be used. 

Rapid growth of data acquisition over the last few decades

The beginning of data age

Ever since 1936 when Alan Turing invented the Turing machine the idea of a smart computer has been bothering the computer scientist. The use of artificial intelligence was at some time only meant to develop algorithms which can in Act as a human being people used to develop only deterministic algorithms which up to some extent can enact human beings in some specific works. Nobody ever thought that one day the machines would learn by themselves until 1959 when Arthur Samuel. The idea of having machines which can learn by themselves was so fascinating that everyone working in the field of computer science was trying to come up with an algorithm which can learn by itself and along the way they managed to develop the algorithms for classification, clustering and so on.  so by the time algorithms were available people realised that to train such algorithms, they need data.The algorithms like neural network are very powerful but then it is extensive amount of data to be better, and this is where the need of data became clearer, people started storing data, using it but as the computers became faster the need of more data and faster data storage devices became essential.

Need of Data Acquisition

We all know that the best way to boost the revenue of any company is by reducing the cost and by increasing the performance. Today almost every company in the world no matter what the domain is trying to increase their revenue,  to do so they are moving towards automation.  automation not only makes the work faster but also reduces the possibilities of the errors which are common to be made by human employees. The growth of the automation industry is so big that there are some companies like uipath automation anywhere and blue prism which are solely based on automation of softwares. Now there is a problem in the automation of various processes either hardware or software, the future of using deterministic methods to automate the process is limited. A programmer can not anticipate all the possible ways of operation of a process, so the automation needed something better than deterministic algorithms. The introduction of Artificial Intelligence and machine learning in industry process automation came with a revolution. Now the tasks like ocr extraction, text classification, image classification pattern recognition and many more became easily doable using machine learning and artificial intelligence, but these algorithms albino required data and that is why the demand of data storage and data acquisition is increasing so rapidly in the market. 

The Future of Data Acquisition

Technology is being involved with everything starting from a wrist watch and all the way to a rocket, because of that we are able to gather data from everywhere. The development of autonomous vehicles is an example which represents the potential of machine learning and data warehousing. With such a power we can do almost everything and that is why data warehousing is getting more important everyday, leading The demand for data acquisition to increase. This new requirement of the industries created a completely new industry known as data warehousing. The world was generating 2.5 quintillion bytes of data every day, at the beginning of 2020 we created about 44 zettabytes of data, that is about 35 to 40 times more than the number of stars in the observable universe. If we talk about the size of this market then according to 2020 the size of the data acquisition system market was about 1.8 billion US dollars and it is expected to increase up to 2.4 billion US dollars by 2025.

The major parts of the world and their contribution in Data Acquisition Market growth from year 2019 to year 2024 is shown below. 

Types of data and storage

A Brief History of Storage

All started in 1725,  at that time punch cards were used as a means to communicate initially they were used as controllers for looms. Almost a century later in 1837, the first analytical engine was created; at that time the punch cards were used as a means to input and output the information into that machine. The sequence of holes in the punch cards was supposed to be the instructions.  so we can finally say that the very first data storage device was nothing but a punch card with a bunch of holes in some sequence. The punch cards kept being used as storage devices until Magnetic storage took its place in 1960. By the end of the 90s magnetic tapes completely took the place of 5 cars and they were being used as the primary means of storing data, providing input, and taking the output from the computers of that time. Just after India was declared as an independent country, in 1947 the very first time 1024 bits of data was stored in a system of cathode ray tubes. Although the approach was primarily to act as a way to introduce Random Access Memory to computers, we can consider it the basis of modern storage devices. by the end of the 1940s  magnet core memory was developed[4]. By the end of 1953 Massachusetts Institute of Technology acquired the patents of magnetic core memory and the first computer using this technology was developed. Intel developed the first semiconductor chip in 1966 which was able to store a memory of 2000 bits. This technology reduced the size of storage devices significantly[5]. The first final version of floppy disks was developed in 1976 which was an updated version of IBM 8 inch floppy disk. Its size was 5.25 inches and it was able to store about 110 kbs of data. Because of its small size and usage, floppy disks became extremely popular back then.  In the same time span storage devices based on different Technologies for being developed and an updated optical disc was first created in 1980 which led to the creation of CDs, DVDs and Blu-ray. By 1990 a hybrid of magnetic and optical disc was repaired named as magneto-optical disk the size was reduced further to 3.5 inches. The floppy disc kept being used for a long time.  The first portable storage device was introduced in late 2000. It worked as a revolution because now people were able to take the data from one computer to another computer without carrying ugly looking floppy disk. It might seem a bit strange and surprising but the solid state drives Vir present all the way from 1950,  different versions and variations of SSD were being used back then.

Storing Large Amount of Data

The idea of storing large amounts of data at the same place first came to life with the implementation of Data Silos. The primary use of data Data Silos was to store the data for organizations and businesses. That was the beginning of big data and Data Silos became the primary source to store big data until the next better Technology came to life. Data lake was the next technology today with big data. As its name suggests it was basically being used by multiple organizations to put a large amount of data into a single data lake, it was literally a lake of data just like a lake of water. The basic idea to create data lakes was to store big data as well as process it in the same system, the architecture used to store and process the data in data lakes was a NoSQL database. 

The above figure shows the basic architecture of big data, and you can notice the tactics used to The next big thing after the data lake was cloud data storage. Since the amount of data we handle is very large, the architecture is supposed to be capable of ingestion, processing and analysis of data. Data Lake Technology was an initiative two cloud storage since it provided access to most of the information via the internet. It was basically an extension of data lakes and it became possible because of the improvement in the internet connectivity bandwidth and computation power. The development of cloud storage was an effort to make data storage more economical for various organizations and individual users after multiple updates over the years. Now cloud data storage can provide infinite scalability to businesses and it has made the data source ability possible from all over the world without any device barrier.

Extracting Knowledge from Data: Limitations and Dealing with noise

In data warehouses the data gets stored in its raw format,  it is stored this way to prevent any kind of data loss. Because of this reason when users need to extract information from the data they may need to apply several more steps to do so[1][2].  raw data can not be used for any sort of application; it needs to be processed in a way so that the necessary information can be extracted. The major steps involved in information extraction are mentioned below;

  1.  Selection

  2.  Preprocessing

  3.  Transformation

  4.  Data mining


The related data is extracted out of the warehouse with the specified conditions, since the data stored in the warehouse is the raw data, we cannot use the selected data directly into an application.  Even though for extraction of the data from the warehouse necessary conditions and constraints are applied the extracted data still contains some noise that is necessary information. 


After selection,  the preprocessing step is applied to the data; the sole purpose of preprocessing is to remove the unnecessary data associated with the selection and only extract the necessary part.  for example, the preprocessing of textual data means the removal of stop words, the removal of special characters  etc. For image data the data stored in the warehouse may be in csv or Excel format and we might need to convert it back to image format.Preprocessing is done to ensure that data is organised into a proper format for further steps and to ensure that best performance can be achieved.


Transformation is applied to ensure that the data contains only the essential and useful features for the further operations. Data transformation may involve the steps like normalisation, generalization and aggregation et cetera[3]. For example consider the data points like “-5, 37, 100, 89, 78” these points can be transformed to “-0.05, 0.37, 1.00, 0.89, 0.78”.  If the transformation is correctly done it ensures the successful execution of the data mining algorithm.

Data Mining

This is the most important part of the whole information extraction. This part consists of numerous Complex and smart algorithms so that we can extract the useful patterns from the data. The data mining step may consist of algorithms like prediction classification, clustering , time series analysis etc. Data mining is not limited to any specific algorithms IT may include algorithms like linear regression, Logistic regression,  K means clustering, neural networks. 

  In information extraction a very important and deadly hurdle is noise. Noise can cause serious problems to the final output of any information extraction process.  Noise in data mainly affects the time complexity of the algorithm,  the classification accuracy of the final result and in some cases the size of the classifier and its reasonability. Initially the dataset is not well known so a random assumption for the type of the noise can not be made. So, to anticipate this problem noise simulation is used. We initially assume that the data is free of any type of noise and simulate noise in the data to find out the effect of noise over all.

The main two type of noises are:

  1. Class Noise

  2. Attribute Noise

Class Noise occurs when the data points are incorrectly labeled. Incorrect labeling can occur because of entry errors, inadequate information, subjective problems during labeling. Majorly the distinguishable class noise is mentioned below.

  • Contradictory examples

  • Misclassifications

As clear from the name attribute noise id caused by the  disturbance in multiple attributes of the dataset. The possible representations of attribute values are.

  • Attribute filled with errors

  • Missing values

  • Non compatible or incomplete values

From the various studies across the world it is concluded that the attribute noise is more fatal than class noise. Also regardless of the above fact that attribute noise is deadlier, it is always best practice to either remove or correct the noisy data points.

Different Techniques used to Analyse Data

Analysis of data is required to find out any specific patterns and relationships between the attributes of the data. The two major ways for data analysis are numerical approach and visualisation technique. Numerical approach is used when the analysis is completely based on computer programs where no specific human intervention is required,  on the other hand visualisation techniques for analysis are used when the analysis is being done by human beings because human beings are better at extraction or recognition of patterns from visual data then numerical data.

The different ways of data analysis using numerical approach are mentioned below:

  1.  Regression Analysis

  2.  Multiple Equation Models

  3.  Grouping Methods

Regression Analysis

The idea of regression analysis is based on the fact that for any data set some of the attributes are dependent on the others and some of the attributes are independent of any other attributes. any variation in the independent attribute values affects the dependent attribute values. The different ways of regression analysis are mentioned below.

  • OLS regression

  • Logistic regression 

  • Hierarchical Regression Modelling

Multiple equation Models

Multiple equation models is a variation of regression analysis with few extensions it is used to find out the existing Pathways from independent attributes to the dependent attributes. It is a very important approach to find out the existing patterns in the data. Multiple equation models allow us to find out either direct or indirect  effect of the dependent variable.The major classifications of multiple equation models approach are mentioned below.

  • SE Modelling (Structural equation)

  • Path analysis


Storage itself has been a very important part of a computer for a very long time now. It all started in 1725 with the first use of the punch cards along the way storage devices kept evolving to take smaller sizes and to store large amounts of data. Industries like IBM Intel Hitachi have played a very important role in the evolution of storage devices. By day these are the companies which are the major providers of cloud storage and cloud computing. With the introduction of the term big data everything changed now the requirement was not only to store the data but to also make the data storage and retrieval and processing more efficient. From the day humankind realised the importance of data and its potential we have been storing the data. Data acquisition market is increasing very rapidly and so are the Technologies being used in the process. As quoted earlier that only the storage of the data is not important but the performance on the data should also be good apart from this fact there is one more thing which is even more important that is the extraction of knowledge from the Stored data. to avoid any kind of loss of information the data stored in the warehouses is actually in its raw format so that when needed the information can be extracted from it. There is a whole new industry revolving around data warehousing and information extraction.The developing countries like India have very high participation in this revolution and are the major creators of the data. because we have seen the potential and we are continuously moving forward to make sure that Technologies like machine learning and artificial Intelligence can play a a major and important role in our life and as a result the size of data acquisition system will keep increasing everyday. Not only until we have perfect artificial intelligence devices but also to keep them updated we will need data. As the Technologies evolve we may experience an improvement in big data and cloud storage as well. 


[1] Inmon, William H. "The data warehouse and data mining." Communications of the ACM 39.11 (1996): 49-51.

[2] Inmon, William H. "What is a data warehouse?." Prism Tech Topic 1.1 (1995): 1-5.

[3] Zhou, Li, et al. "Recent advances of flexible data storage devices based on organic nanoscaled materials." Small 14.10 (2018): 1703126.

[4] Goda, Kazuo, and Masaru Kitsuregawa. "The history of storage systems." Proceedings of the IEEE 100.Special Centennial Issue (2012): 1433-1440.

[5] Mottier, Véronique. "The interpretive turn: History, memory, and storage in qualitative research." Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research. Vol. 6. No. 2. 2005.

[6] Holy, Tomas, et al. "Data acquisition and processing software package for Medipix2." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 563.1 (2006): 254-258.

Wednesday, September 2, 2020

भारत के Top 5 सरकारी अंतरिक्ष संगठन

Ankush Pandey

Space exploration in India

Space exploration in India
    पिछले कुछ वर्षों में विभिन्न अंतरिक्ष एजेंसियों से अंतरिक्ष अन्वेषण परियोजनाओं के रूप में दिखाया गया है कि अंतरिक्ष अन्वेषण हमारे विचार से बहुत अधिक मजेदार हो सकता है और यह बिग बैंग या इस ग्रह या ब्रह्मांड पर हमारी प्रजातियों की उत्पत्ति के बारे में बहुत गहरा ज्ञान प्रदान कर सकता है।  और ब्रह्मांड की वस्तुओं में सामग्री और ऊर्जा जैसे ब्लैक होल वर्महोल न्यूट्रॉन तारे और बहुत कुछ।  हमारे पिछले लेख में हमने पहले से ही बहुत अच्छी तरह से ज्ञात बहुत सफल अभी तक सफल भारतीय स्टार्टअप (निजी कंपनियों) पर चर्चा नहीं की है, जो परियोजनाओं पर काम कर रहे हैं या तो सीधे अंतरिक्ष अन्वेषण से संबंधित हैं या अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से संबंधित हैं।
Space exploration in India

भारत के शीर्ष 5 सरकारी अंतरिक्ष संगठन

    मुझे पता नहीं क्यों लेकिन जब भी हम अंतरिक्ष की खोज, मिसाइल प्रौद्योगिकियों, उपग्रह प्रौद्योगिकियों के बारे में बात करते हैं, तो हमारे दिमाग में पहला और एकमात्र नाम इसरो का आता है।  इसमें कोई शक नहीं, हाल के वर्षों में इसरो ने अंतरिक्ष अन्वेषण के बहुत मूल्यवान मील के पत्थर हासिल किए हैं जो कई अन्य अंतरिक्ष एजेंसियों या यहां तक ​​कि देशों के सपने देखते हैं।  लेकिन यह भी सच है कि इसरो के अलावा कई अंतरिक्ष एजेंसियां ​​और अन्य सरकारी निकाय हैं, जो सीधे अंतरिक्ष अन्वेषण से संबंधित कुछ परियोजनाओं में शामिल हैं और क्षेत्र में वास्तव में बहुत अच्छा कर रहे हैं, लेकिन फिर भी हम उनके बारे में नहीं जानते हैं।  इस लेख में मैं आपको शीर्ष 5 भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान विभागों के बारे में बताऊंगा जो अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान पर काम कर रहे हैं, उनमें से कुछ इसरो के साथ काम कर रहे हैं, लेकिन मुझे यकीन है कि आपने उनके बारे में नहीं सुना होगा।

Department of Space (DoS)(अंतरिक्ष विभाग)

Department of Space
    अंतरिक्ष विभाग (अंतरिक्ष विभाग) भारत सरकार और देश के कई अंतरिक्ष और भौतिक अनुसंधान संगठनों के शासी निकाय का एक प्रमुख विभाग है।  एक सरकारी संगठन होने के नाते अंतरिक्ष विभाग के पास अंतरिक्ष विज्ञान और प्रौद्योगिकी के विकास का समर्थन करके देश के सामाजिक आर्थिक क्षेत्र में लाभ बढ़ाने की जिम्मेदारी है।  अंतरिक्ष विभाग भारत के दो प्रमुख उपग्रह कार्यक्रमों को संभालता है जिन्हें नाम दिया गया है; 

  • Indian National Satellite System भारतीय राष्ट्रीय उपग्रह प्रणाली (INSAT)

    • यह कुछ भूस्थिर उपग्रहों की एक श्रृंखला है जो भारतीय दूरसंचार, मौसम पूर्वानुमान, पर्यावरण परिवर्तनों (भौतिक या रासायनिक) की निगरानी और विभिन्न सुरक्षा बलों द्वारा निष्पादित कई खोज और बचाव कार्यों के लिए जिम्मेदार है।

  • Indian Remote Sensing Satellites भारतीय रिमोट सेंसिंग उपग्रह (IRS)

    • यह भारत सरकार द्वारा संचालित एक कार्यक्रम है।  इस तरह की प्रणाली स्थापित करने का मुख्य कारण उपग्रहों और प्रक्रिया का उपयोग करके देश स्तर पर डेटा एकत्र करना और राष्ट्र की बेहतरी के लिए उस डेटा का विश्लेषण करना था।  इस विंग के मेंन तीन लक्ष्य हैं;
    1. डिजाइन और सूरज समकालिक परिक्रमा उपग्रहों की तैनाती।
    2. उपग्रहों के नियंत्रण के लिए, उनसे डेटा एकत्र करना और उस डेटा को संसाधित करने के लिए, एक ग्राउंड स्टेशन का निर्माण और संचालन करना।
    3. कृषि, रक्षा और बुनियादी ढांचे के विकास जैसे विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में भविष्यवाणी और पूर्वानुमान के लिए एकत्रित आंकड़ों का उपयोग करने के लिए।
मजेदार तथ्य: अंतरिक्ष विभाग इसरो का प्रबंधन करता है लेकिन इसे इसरो के बाद स्थापित किया गया था।

INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research)

Indian National Committee for Space Research
    भारतीय राष्ट्रीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान समिति (INCOSPAR) आज इस नाम के तहत कार्रवाई नहीं कर रही है, हम आज इसरो के रूप में कल्पना कर सकते हैं।  इसरो द्वारा 1962 में, डॉ। विक्रम साराभाई, जिन्हें भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन के जनक के रूप में भी जाना जाता है, के समक्ष स्थापित किया गया था क्योंकि उन्होंने INCOSPAR की स्थापना की थी और बाद में 1969 में इसरो द्वारा संगठन को अलंकृत किया गया, शुरुआत में यह संगठन केवल था  टाटा इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ फंडामेंटल रिसर्च का एक हिस्सा।  यह अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान के क्षेत्र में भारत सरकार द्वारा एक कदम आगे था।  INCOSPAR थुम्बा इक्वेटोरियल रॉकेट लॉन्चिंग स्टेशन के विकास में मुख्य खिलाड़ी था।  इंडियन नेशनल कमेटी फॉर स्पेस रिसर्च के रॉकेट इंजीनियरों की पहली कोर टीम में महान वैज्ञानिक, भारत के मिसाइल मैन डॉ। एपीबी अब्दुल कलाम सर भी शामिल थे।

Defense Space Agency

    भारत अंतरिक्ष युद्ध, सैटेलाइट इंटेलिजेंस से जुड़ी संपत्तियों के क्षेत्र में दशकों से काम कर रहा है।  इस क्षेत्र में कार्य और विकास से जुड़ी एक सरकारी एजेंसी है जिसका नाम रक्षा अंतरिक्ष एजेंसी है।  एजेंसी एक त्रि-सेवा कमान है और अंतरिक्ष युद्ध का प्रबंधन करती है और उपग्रह खुफिया से संबंधित परिसंपत्तियों को संभालती है।  यह संगठन 2018 के सितंबर महीने में स्थापित किया गया था।  डीएसए की स्थापना कारगिल समीक्षा समिति की सिफारिशों का परिणाम थी जिसकी समीक्षा नरेश चंद्र टास्क फोर्स ने की थी।  तीन कमांड बनाने के लिए टास्क फोर्स की सिफारिश थी;
  1. Cyber command
  2. Aerospace command and
  3. Special operation command
इस प्रकार डीएसए एक त्रि-सेवा एजेंसी है।  अंत में 28 सितंबर 2018 को प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी के मंत्रालय में भारत सरकार द्वारा डिफेंस स्पेस एजेंसी, डिफेंस साइबर एजेंसी और आर्म्ड फोर्सेस स्पेशल ऑपरेशंस डिवीजन को मंजूरी दी गई।
डीएसए रक्षा के दो कार्य विभाग (डीआईपीएसी डिफेंस इमेजरी प्रोसेसिंग एंड एनालिसिस सेंटर और डीएससीसी डिफेंस सैटेलाइट कंट्रोल सेंटर) अपने परिचालन के ठीक बाद।  डीएसए की दो मुख्य सफल परियोजनाएँ हैं;
  1. Anti satellite program of India in March 2019
  2. IndSpaceEx 25th to 26th of July 2019
नीचे सूचीबद्ध संगठन किसी तरह एक दूसरे से संबंधित हैं, क्योंकि वे इसरो के सहयोगी हैं लेकिन फिर भी वे एक स्वतंत्र निकाय की तरह काम करते हैं।

National Remote Sensing Centre (राष्ट्रीय सुदूर संवेदन केन्द्र)

National Remote Sensing Centre
    NRSC भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन का एक प्राथमिक केंद्र है और अंतरिक्ष विभाग के साथ भी जुड़ा हुआ है।  इस संगठन का मुख्य लक्ष्य विभिन्न क्षेत्रों और डोमेन के डेटा जैसे पर्यावरण के तापमान, दबाव, वनस्पति विकास, शहरी भूमि, बंजर भूमि की जानकारी, भू-आकृति विज्ञान, बाढ़ के खतरे ज़ोनेशन, कटाव के नक्शे, जल निकायों और कई और अधिक को कैप्चर करना है।  संगठन मशीन लर्निंग और डेटा साइंस जैसी नवीनतम तकनीकों का उपयोग करके विभिन्न विश्लेषणों और भविष्यवाणियों के लिए डेटा प्रदान करता है, और उन भविष्यवाणियों का उपयोग विभिन्न समस्याओं के समाधान विकसित करने के लिए करता है, ताकि देश की समग्र वृद्धि बढ़े।

Human Space Flight Centre (समानव अंतरिक्ष उड़ान केंद्र)

Human Space Flight Centre
    यह संभवतः भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन का सबसे नया उड़ान केंद्र है, इसे 30 जनवरी 2019 को बनाया गया था, इस ढांचे को बनाने का मुख्य कारण मानव अंतरिक्ष उड़ान मिशनों का समन्वय करना था।  यह विभाग मानव अंतरिक्ष उड़ानों के लिए सभी प्रशिक्षण और तकनीकी अनुसंधान के लिए जिम्मेदार है।  HSFC द्वारा पहली क्रू फ्लाइट को 2021 के दिसंबर महीने में लॉन्च करने की योजना है। एक बात और है जो इसरो द्वारा इस विभाग के गठन से पहले और इसरो द्वारा एक मानव अंतरिक्ष मिशन का संचालन करने की घोषणा से पहले की है।  गगनयान, मानव अंतरिक्ष मिशन का संचालन करने के लिए इसरो की प्राथमिकता सूची में नहीं था।

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Top 5 government space organisations of India

Ankush Pandey

Space exploration in India

Space exploration in India
    Last few years space exploration projects from various space agencies have shown as that space exploration can be much more fun than we think of it and it can provide a very deep knowledge about the Big Bang or the origin of our species on this planet or the universe and materials and energies in universe objects like black hole wormhole neutron stars and many more. In our previous article we have already discussed the various not very well known yet very successful Indian startups (private companies) which are working on projects either directly related to space exploration or indirectly related to it.
Space exploration in India

Top 5 government space organisations of India

    I don't know why but whenever we talk about space exploration, missile technologies, satellite technologies, the first and the only name that comes to our mind is ISRO. No doubt, in recent years ISRO has achieved very valuable milestones of space exploration that many other space agencies or even countries dream of. But it is also true that there are many space agencies and other government bodies other than ISRO, which are directly involved in some projects related to space exploration and are doing really great in the field, but still we don't know about them. In this article I will tell you about the top 5 Indian space research departments which are working on space research, some of them are working with ISRO, but I am sure you haven't heard of them.

Department of Space (DoS)(अंतरिक्ष विभाग)

Department of Space
    Department of Space (अंतरिक्ष विभाग) is a major department of Indian government and the governing body of many space and physical research organizations of the country. As being a government organization Department of Space has the responsibility to increase the benefits in the socioeconomic field of the country by endorsing the development of space science and technology. Department of Space handles the two major satellite programs of India named as;

  • Indian National Satellite System (INSAT)

    • It is a series of some geostationary satellites responsible for Indian telecommunication, weather forecasting, monitoring of environmental changes (physical or chemical) and many search and rescue operations executed by various security forces.

  • Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS)

    • It is a program operated by the Indian government. The main reason for establishing such a system was to gather data on a country level using satellites and process and analyse that data for the betterment of the nation. The mail three goals of this wing are;
    1. Design and deploy sun synchronous orbiting satellites.
    2. For the controlling of the satellites, gathering data from them and for processing that data, build and operate a ground station.
    3. To utilize the data gathered for prediction and forecasting in various fields like agriculture, defense and infrastructure development.
Fun Fact: The Department of Space manages the ISRO but it was established after ISRO.

INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research)

Indian National Committee for Space Research
    Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) is not in action under this name today, we can visualize it as the ISRO today. It was established way before ISRO i.e., in 1962 by Dr. Vikram Sarabhai who is also known as the father of Indian Space Research Organization because he established the INCOSPAR and later the organization was superseded by ISRO in 1969, in the beginning the organization was only a part of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. This was a one step forward by Indian government in the field of space research. INCOSPAR was the main player in the development of the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station. The first core team of rocket engineers at Indian National Committee for Space Research also included the great scientist, the missile man of India Dr. APB Abdul Kalam Sir.

Defense Space Agency

    India has been working for decades in the field of space warfare, assets related to satellite intelligence. There is a government agency associated with the work and development in this field named as Defense Space Agency. The agency is a tri-service command and manages space warfare and handles the assets related to satellite intelligence. The organization was established in the year of 2018 in the month of September. The establishment of DSA was the result of the recommendations of the Kargil Review Committee which was reviewed by Naresh Chandra Task Force. It was the recommendation of the task force to create three commands;
  1. Cyber command
  2. Aerospace command and
  3. Special operation command
Thus the DSA is a tri-service agency. Finally on September 28 2018 the Defense Space Agency, Defense Cyber Agency and Armed Forces Special Operations Division was approved by Indian Government in the ministry of prime minister Narendra Modi.
The DSA two working departments of the defense (DIPAC Defense Imagery Processing and Analysis Center and DSCC Defense Satellite Control Center) right after its operationalization. The two main successful projects of DSA are;
  1. Anti satellite program of India in March 2019
  2. IndSpaceEx 25th to 26th of July 2019
The organizations listed below are somehow related to each other, because they are associates of ISRO but still they operate like a free body.

National Remote Sensing Centre (राष्ट्रीय सुदूर संवेदन केन्द्र)

National Remote Sensing Centre
    NRSC is a primary centre of Indian Space Research Organisation and is also associated with the Department of Space. The main goal of this organization is to capture data of various regions and domains like environmental temperature, pressure, vegetation growth, Urban land, wastelands information, geomorphology, flood hazard Zonation, Erosion maps, water bodies and many more. The organization provides the data for various analysis and predictions using the newest technologies like Machine Learning and Data Science, and uses those predictions to develop solutions for various problems, so that the overall growth of the country increases.

Human Space Flight Centre (समानव अंतरिक्ष उड़ान केंद्र)

Human Space Flight Centre
    This one is probably the newest child of the Indian Space Research Organization, it was formed on 30th January 2019 the main reason to form this body was to coordinate the human space flight missions. This department is responsible for all the training and the technological research for the human space flights. The first crewed flight by the HSFC is planned to be launched in the December month of 2021. There is one thing which is to be noted that before the formation of this department by ISRO and before the announcement by ISRO to conduct a human space mission the Gaganyaan, It was not in the priority list of ISRO to conduct a human space mission.

Thursday, July 30, 2020

Top 5 Startups of India Based on Space Exploration

Ankush Pandey

Space is very facinating

Top 5 Startups of India Based on Space Exploration
    The stories of outer space are very interesting to listen about, movies which are related to space exploration and space missions are breathtaking. There are so many movies like Gravity, Mission Mangal, The Martian, Interstellar and The Cloverfield Paradox which are interesting to watch and teach a lot about space and other planets in our solar system. Out of the movies, in recent years the real space missions executed by different space agencies around the globe just blew our minds. The famous space agencies like ISRO, SpaceX and NASA did a lot of missions and are planning to do a lot of machines which are really wow to think about.

Organizations working on space exploration

    There are a lot of private organisations and startups around the globe which are doing unbelievable experiments and succeeding in them. How can we forget about the famous Mars mission successfully executed by the Indian space organisation ISRO in a budget less than the famous movie Gravity or If we take another example of the famous private organisation SpaceX the work this organisation does in the field of space exploration the rockets they make and the technology they are evolving true makes us excited about space exploration. All of the movies and the news about all these foreign space agencies which are not governed by the government, of course, made me think that if there is any private company or startup in India which is working on space projects creating missiles or satellites or something like that. In recent years as the area of space exploration in India is expanding, the shoebox-sized satellites or we can say nanosatellites are becoming more popular, this shift in the preferences for a satellite size is giving birth to opportunities for new startups to compete in the field with their innovative ideas. 

Top 5 Startups of India Based on Space Exploration 

    After doing a lot of research I surprisingly found some private companies or we can say some startups in India which are working on making different rockets, making satellite models and working with our favourite space agency ISRO and doing good in their field. So in this article, I will be telling you about the top five private startups and companies which are doing great in the field of space exploration and rocket making and satellite development.

Dhruva Space

Dhruva space

    Dhruva Space is an Indian company, it was founded in 2012 by a trio named Sanjay Nakkanti, Narayan Prasad and Abhishek Raju. This is a Bangalore based company. The core application area of this company is agriculture, weather, space exploration, bio-diversity and many more. They are planning to make all these things better by analysing the data gathered by their safelights and make forecasting on the basis of all that information. They have already launched more than six satellites in total equipped with various sensors. They have collaborated with many national and international space research organizations. They have worked with more than eight countries in total.
Their NanoStat Platform offers the following breathtaking features.
    1. Scalable Architecture
    2. LEO Optimised Design
    3. Up to 6U Payload Volume
    4. Up to 10kg Payload Mass
    5. Powering Payloads up to 15W
    6. Pointing Accuracy : < 0.07 deg
    7. Mission Lifetime (Nominal) : 3 Years
    8. Electric Propulsion for Orbit Manoeuvring
    9. VHF/UHF Band: Telemetry & Telecommand
    10. S/X Band: Payload Data Transmission Links
    The main reason we are featuring this company at number one is its area of interests. It really makes us feel good when we talk about the achievements of these people.


    Pixxel is an India based private organisation which focuses on research and development in fields related to space exploration. Pixxel was founded by two undergraduate entrepreneurs Kshitij Khandelwal and Awais Ahmed in 2018. Pixxel is one of those organizations which are ready to materialise their Ideas very soon. Their work is focused on creating lightweight satellites, they believe that when it comes to cost-effectiveness of operation and manufacturing lightweight satellites are way better than heavy satellites.  Their idea is to construct a constellation of satellites in space, those satellites are meant to sense data from earth staying in the orbit of earth and then send that data to earth for conducting various researches in the field of agriculture
“The first step towards achieving our vision is building and launching a constellation of the world’s most advanced earth imaging constellation that can beam down data at a level of detail that hasn’t been attempted before,” says Co-founder and Chief Executive Awais Ahmed.
“Once that (first satellite) is done and perfected, we can have newer satellites rapidly in three months. We can start launching five new satellites every six months after that. By 2021, our first constellation will be complete which we will keep on expanding and replacing,” says Awais.
    They will mount an ultra-high-resolution camera on their satellite and use and capture the images regularly, after capturing the data, it will be sent to their server on earth. After applying various analytical techniques to the data acquired the experts will try to forecast various natural events which may occur on earth. They were set to launch their first satellite way back in November of 2019. The idea proposed by Pixxel is really unique and only one of its kind. The co-founder of Pixxel states that they may use similar methods for exploring other places like Moon and Marse. I hope they succeed in what they are planning to do.

Agnikula Cosmos and Bellatrix Aerospace

    At number three we have put two space agencies, they deserve this place in this list because of their unique work. The first company is the Agnikula Cosmos, this company is founded in Chennai by two people named Srinath Ravichandran and Moin. This company is working on a very exciting project named Agniban, it is a two-staged rocket but the main highlight of Agniban is its 3D printed engines. If everything works fine they will be able to create a method for affordable in-orbit launches and that’s what excites about them. 
    The second company is named Bellatrix Aerospace this company is located in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The company is founded by two entrepreneurs named Rohan M Ganapathy and Yashas Karanam. They have invented the first rocket engine to work on Methane and liquid oxygen as fuel. They have even created a rocket-powered by that engine named Chetak; it is probably the first rocket to be powered by such fuels.

Skyroot Aerospace

skyroot aerospace
    At number four we have Skyroot Aerospace, this is a Hyderabad based aerospace company. This company is founded by two Ex ISRO scientists named Pawan Kumar Chandan and Naga Bharath Daka. They are a manufacturing company and are focused on producing rockets. They have been working on their Vikram series of rockets, the company claims to send various satellites to space from 2021.

Xovian Aerospace

    At number 5 we have put a company called Xovian Aerospace, this company was founded in the year 2011 by a young entrepreneur named Ankit Bhateja. This is a Delhi based company but now they have shifted to Bangalore. The main goal of this company is to provide sustainable solutions for low-cost fabrication of satellites. Because they have a lot of experienced members in their team they are succeeding in achieving the goal they were set to. Apart from providing solutions to the fabrication of satellites they also provide a platform for space education in India to grow.
We started as a platform to nurture the space education in India. Since 2011 we are providing Educational, Scientific and Research activities on CANSAT, Sounding Rockets and High Altitude Ballooning.
Now with the unfaltering efforts of our highly experienced team, we are the part of the change, of providing sustainable solutions to the Space Industry .   – Team Xovian
All the startups I have mentioned above are based on my personal research, I may be mssing some startup which should be in my list. If there is something I am missing please do let me know in the comment section.

Monday, July 27, 2020

Top 5 in demand programming languages of 2020

Ankush Pandey

Need of programming languages in 2020

    Hello guys, I have been thinking a lot lately about what will be the face of industries and what will be the face of all the hardware and software-based businesses and here is what I found out; the hardware-based industries have been facing great loss recently of course because of this COVID-19 situation and all the lockdown and social distancing going on. Because almost every sector of our society is shifting towards the online medium either it is education or business or film industry and only the businesses which can not be shifted to the online mode are facing loss because of this pandemic. And because of all these changes, we might expect a very very noticeable boom in the software industry and we might expect software companies craving for good programmers very soon. Other than the requirement in the market, programming is going to be the most essential thing in the future because of the shifting of our society towards technology so fast, knowing a programming language will be like knowing a universal language in future.

Top 5 in demand programming languages of 2020

    So in this article, I am going to describe the Top 5 in-demand programming languages of 2020 which I think anybody can start with. This list I have shared is not based on only the demand of the language but also on the simplicity of the language to learn and the ease of programming it can provide, so hold tight and let’s begin.


    Python is the easiest programming language available today. The readability of its syntax makes it the easiest language to program. It is one of the best languages for the beginners to start with, considering its simple syntax structure. Other than its simple syntax and readability Python has become one of the most demanded programming languages out there and that has been possible because of its use in most of the data science and machine learning applications. Python is an open-source programming language that means everyone can contribute to its development and that is the reason Python has a lot of libraries for almost every task you can think of and that makes Python the most suitable language to use. Almost everybody wants to learn this language nowadays and there are a ton of online courses available for this language. Python is used in the field of IoT also, in the development boards like Raspberry pi and Nvidia’s Jetson nano Python is used for programming and because those boards cover a very large portion of IoT development, so does Python. Some of the famous projects build with python are listed below:
  1. Instagram
  2. Pinterest
  3. Spotify
  4. Dropbox
  5. Uber
  6. Reddit
    There very useful web frameworks supported by Python programming language and we will cover them in some other article in future.


    Javascript is the second language which is as much versatile as Python, in its domains of use. A few years ago Javascript was a front end development language because there was no support or environment available for the execution of Javascript code on a computer except the web browsers and web browsers were used for the interpretation of Javascript. But in recent years Javascript has got a bunch of frameworks like Node.js that provide an environment so that it can be interpreted in any computer with any operating system. With these frameworks created for this language, it has become the only language which supports frontend and backend both, we can create a complete website by only using Javascript. Javascript is also used in the field of machine learning nowadays, Javascript is used for mobile app development also, some of the famous mobile applications made with javascript are mentioned below:
  1. Netflix
  2. Facebook
  3. LinkedIn
  4. Uber and many more…
    So technically speaking Javascript is a universal language and you can do almost everything with it, so if you want to start a programming career and don’t want to be switching back and forth in various languages and you are not afraid of the difficult syntax of this language then you should start with Javascript. The syntax of javascript is a bit difficult but you can work with that if you have decided to work with javascript already.


    Java is being used for decades for the development purpose in the industry, of course for the search of better developers and for switching to latest technologies companies are moving towards other languages but still, Java holds a large area of the development in the industry. And because Java is still there and in a very large area of work it requires a lot of engineers to keep ongoing projects at a good pace. So there is a very good demand for java developers in the industry and that should be your motivation to learn Java in 2020. Because being very old and well used Java gets a lot of updates and is one of the most secure languages out there. Other than the properties mentioned above Java has another advantage over other languages and that is Mobile app development, there are many languages coming lately like Kotlin for mobile app development but still, a major section of mobile app development is under Java language. There are many web frameworks also supported by Java like Spring, Hibernate, GWT, Blade etc. Talking about the examples of famous products developed in java you can assume of almost any android application, most probably it will be made of java itself. The syntactical structure of Java is a bit hard that is why using it in complicated tasks like Mchine Learning makes them even harder, that is why we don’t encounter a lot of Machine Learning and Data Science work being done in Java language. But if we don’t give much weightage to syntax complexity it is a quite good language to learn.


    Kotlin is a cross-platform statically typed general-purpose programming language, It is used to develop cross-platform applications more specifically mobile applications. Last year Google itself announced that it will consider Kotlin as a preferred programming language when it comes to mobile app development. Kotlin runs in JVM because it was developed to fully interoperate with Java in future, the syntactical structure of Kotlin is more concise compared to Java. Other than mobile app development Kotlin can be used for server-side and client-side programming as well. The syntax structure of Kotlin is complex. But still, if you want a future in the field of mobile app development then you better start learning Kotlin.

C# (C Sharp)

    C# (C sharp) programming language was developed by Microsoft in 2000 initially it was a part of the .NET framework. C# is a class-based, component-oriented and lexically scoped programming language. It is strongly typed and lexically scoped programming language. The main intension of developing such a programming language was to develop various software components which were meant to be deployed in a distributed environment. According to the 2020 CodinGame survey, about 53% of the recruiters search for c# developers which is more than Python. The syntactical structure of C# language is very similar to C and C++ languages so it will be easier for C and C++ developers to switch to this language, but any newcomer if wants to learn this language he or she should be ready to face the hard syntax of this programming language.

Friday, July 24, 2020

Top 5 tech movies to watch in 2020

Ankush Pandey

Movies inspire people

Literature has always been a guiding light for almost all the innovation and technology we have today. Someone's imagination in the book makes some other people so much fascinated that they start trying to replicate those ideas in real life and eventually end up doing unbelievable inventions and discoveries. The closest example of how humans got fascinated to search the entire Ocean for the endpoint of the world because they heard stories of the endpoint of the world from their ancestors are from some books. How can we forget about the movie named contagion released in 2011 this movie was a point to point representation of this COVID-19 situation, director's imagination about search pandemic is really appreciable in this movie. Even famous scientists like Einstein have admitted that they get inspired by very ancient books like Bhagavad Gita. But now in today's era, most of the literature is in the form of movies and videos and people watch them to entertain themselves. I have seen a lot of students and kids getting so fascinated about some movie characters in science fiction movies that they make it a goal of their life to create something like that or to be someone like that.
    Other than inspiring people to do similar things in real life there are movies also representing the true events which have happened in this world. Movies like The imitation game. Catch me if you can, Spartacus 1960, Midnight express 1978 and many more represent the intensity of the situation of that time and that event. The movie Mangal mission represents the struggle, the determination and the bravery of the scientist of ISRO who made this mission possible. All of these things remind me of the thoughts of Tom Sherak that.
Because I am from an engineering and technical background I prefer watching tech movies more than science fiction, even I am very much affected by the ideas and by some of the characters portrayed in these movies that they have a very huge impact on my personal life and on my personality also.  
"Movies are a reflection of society"

Top 5 tech movies to watch in 2020

    All of these things bring us to the question: what are those movies which one should watch? Well, don't worry guess today, I am going to tell you about the Top 5 tech movies to watch in 2020. These are the movies which I have watched and found really interesting and inspiring.

The Imitation Game (2014)

    The Imitation Game is one of the best movies I've ever seen. This movie is based on the true story of the events that happened at the time of World War II. The story of the movie revolves around the great mathematician and computer scientist Alan Turing. This story perfectly represents how he was passionate about his work and what were the problems he was working on at the time of World war II. Other than Science and technology this movie also portrays perfectly that thought process and behaviour of society towards the homosexual people and how they were rejected by the society no matter how important their role was in the development of society and Science. This movie shows the intensity of the situation because of the world war going on. I will recommend anyone and everyone to watch this movie at least once.

Her (2013)

    Her movie tells the touching story of a greeting card writer played by Jacqueline phoenix, it shows how a person falls in love with an AI operating system. At first, I thought that it's just a story of a person who is crazy about technology and falls in love with an Artificial Intelligence based operating system, but surprisingly this movie takes a really deep dive into the concept of love and it shows that how the life of a person can be complicated when he is alone and what are the things which make people be more attached toward a machine than a human. Unlike The Imitation Game, this is not a true story based movie but I am sure that when you watch it you will find many heart-touching moments and it is a really beautiful love story. The blood of her movie is very simple and interesting at the same time, in my opinion, it should be a must-watch movie in your to-do list. 

The Social Network (2010)

    The Social Network is another movie which inspired my college life to push my limits and do more and more research in my domain and implementation of the knowledge gained by the research. This movie is based on true events, the story revolves around the two main characters Mark Zuckerberg and Eduardo Saverin. How they idealise and create Facebook and what problems they face doing that. This movie shows that to achieve something great in our life we might make some enemies and might lose some things but that should not stop us. This movie doesn’t only covers the technological side of the journey but also tells a great story about love, hard work and betrayal.


    Wall-E is a great animated movie, it’s like a post-apocalyptic movie because it shows life in a far far away future when almost all the valuable properties of nature are destroyed, humans have created a lot of mess and garbage and left the earth to live in a space station. The main character of the movie is a garbage collecting robot which is left on earth and collects the garbage. The movie shows how a robot falls in love and how people finally realize that nature is important for us to live because we are a part of it. Wal-E shows us that in the rush of chasing our dreams and creating our identity in this world we ignore nature and plants, ignoring that they are the only reason we have the most important thing of our life, that is our life itself. This movie is enough to put an idea of protecting nature.

Iron-man (2008 - 2019)

    This one is the heart of almost every technology-loving person, this movie might be promoted as a superhero movie but in my opinion, it is the story of a Genius, Billionaire, Playboy, Philanthropist who eventually becomes a superhero by learning how to sacrifice everything in the good of others without even caring for your life. The complete story of this persona shows that it doesn’t matter how arrogant and selfish you are but the moment you learn the concept of love and sacrifice you become a superhero. Other than that, this character has motivated so many engineers and entrepreneurs that they are continuously trying to create the tech he made in the movie. The best example of it is the Gravity Industries and its founder Richard Browning who created a mobile flying suit. This is a must watch from my side.


  • Ankush Pandey Software engineer / Researcher / IBM cirtified Data Scientist